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Last Line of Defence

By Marie A Brown
May 2017

Compliance, monitoring and enforcement of environmental law is the last line of defence for the public interest in nature. Poorly implemented, it risks failing to meet statutory aspirations and the environment ultimately pays the price. Despite its pivotal importance to policy outcomes, it is usually deprioritised compared with other stages of the policy cycle. This report shines a light on the approach of many of our agencies to this important role, provides insight into important innovations underway and signals where improvement is needed and how that could be achieved.

This research is funded by the New Zealand Law Foundation, Foundation Footprint and the Ministry for the Environment.